- Introduction ::MadagascarBackground:Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896 but regained independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA achieved a second term following a landslide victory in the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006. In early 2009, protests over increasing restrictions on opposition press and activities resulted in RAVALOMANANA handing over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Numerous attempts have been made by regional and international organizations to resolve the subsequent political gridlock by forming a power-sharing government. Madagascar's independent electoral commission and the UN originally planned to hold a presidential election in early May 2013, but postponed the election until late July 2013, due to logistical delays.Geography ::MadagascarLocation:Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of MozambiqueGeographic coordinates:20 00 S, 47 00 EArea:total: 587,041 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 47land: 581,540 sq kmwater: 5,501 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly less than twice the size of ArizonaLand boundaries:0 kmCoastline:4,828 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmcontinental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobathClimate:tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in southTerrain:narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in centerElevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 mhighest point: Maromokotro 2,876 mNatural resources:graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 5.96%permanent crops: 1.02%other: 93.02% (2011)Irrigated land:10,860 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:337 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 16.5 cu km/yr (2%/1%/97%)per capita: 1,010 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestationvolcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical timesEnvironment - current issues:soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the islandEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique ChannelPeople and Society ::MadagascarNationality:noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)adjective: MalagasyEthnic groups:Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, ComoranLanguages:French (official), Malagasy (official), EnglishReligions:indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%Population:22,599,098 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 52Age structure:0-14 years: 41.1% (male 4,678,675/female 4,599,636)15-24 years: 20.6% (male 2,332,608/female 2,323,409)25-54 years: 31.1% (male 3,514,600/female 3,507,724)55-64 years: 4.1% (male 445,159/female 485,846)65 years and over: 3.1% (male 322,706/female 388,735) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 82.5 %youth dependency ratio: 77.4 %elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 %potential support ratio: 19.5 (2013)Median age:total: 19 yearsmale: 18.8 yearsfemale: 19.2 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:2.65% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 23Birth rate:33.58 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 32Death rate:7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 129Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 94Urbanization:urban population: 32.6% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 4.73% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:ANTANANARIVO (capital) 1.816 million (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/femaletotal population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:19.5note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009 est.)Maternal mortality rate:240 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 46Infant mortality rate:total: 46.13 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 47male: 50.17 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 41.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 64.85 yearscountry comparison to the world: 174male: 63.45 yearsfemale: 66.29 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:4.36 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 33Contraceptive prevalence rate:39.9% (2008/09)Health expenditures:3.8% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 171Physicians density:0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2007)Hospital bed density:0.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 74% of populationrural: 34% of populationtotal: 46% of populationunimproved:urban: 26% of populationrural: 66% of populationtotal: 54% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 21% of populationrural: 12% of populationtotal: 15% of populationunimproved:urban: 79% of populationrural: 88% of populationtotal: 85% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.2% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 92HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:24,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 73HIV/AIDS - deaths:1,700 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fevervectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue feverwater contact disease: schistosomiasisanimal contact disease: rabies (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:1.6% (2008)country comparison to the world: 187Children under the age of 5 years underweight:36.8% (2004)country comparison to the world: 6Education expenditures:2.8% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 150Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 64.5%male: 67.4%female: 61.6% (2009 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 10 yearsmale: 11 yearsfemale: 10 years (2009)Child labor - children ages 5-14:total number: 1,827,423percentage: 28 %note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2007 est.)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 2.3%country comparison to the world: 141male: 1.7%female: 2.8% (2005)Government ::MadagascarCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Madagascarconventional short form: Madagascarlocal long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikaralocal short form: Madagascar/Madagasikaraformer: Malagasy RepublicGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Antananarivogeographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 Etime difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, ToliaraIndependence:26 June 1960 (from France)National holiday:Independence Day, 26 June (1960)Constitution:passed by referendum 17 November 2010; promulgated 11 December 2010 (2010)Legal system:civil law system based on the old French civil code and customary law in matters of marriage, family, and obligationInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Andry Nirina RAJOELINA (since 18 March 2009)head of government: Prime Minister Jean Omer BERIZIKY (since 2 November 2011)cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 3 December 2006 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president; note - a power-sharing agreement concluded in September 2011 established conditions for general elections, expected toward the end of 2013 after repeated delayselection results: percent of vote - Marc RAVALOMANANA 54.8%, Jean LAHINIRIKO 11.7%, Roland RATSIRAKA 10.1%, Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO 9.1%, Norbert RATSIRAHONANA 4.2%, Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO 4.2%, Elia RAVELOMANANTSOA 2.6%, Pety RAKOTONIAINA 1.7%, other 1.6%; note - RAVALOMANANA stepped down on 17 March 2009note:: on 17 March 2009, democratically elected President Marc RAVALOMANANA stepped down handing the government over to the military, which in turn conferred the presidency on opposition leader and Antananarivo mayor Andry RAJOELINA; a power-sharing agreement established a 15-month transition period to conclude with general elections in 2010, which failed to occur; a subsequent agreement aimed for elections in early 2013 which have since slid and are now expected late in 2013Legislative branch:bicameral legislature consists of a Senate or Senat (100 seats; two-thirds of the members appointed by regional assemblies; the remaining one-third appointed by the president; members to serve four-year terms) and a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (127 seats - reduced from 160 seats by an April 2007 national referendum; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)elections: National Assembly - last held on 23 September 2007 (next to be concurrent with presidential elections); note - a power-sharing agreement in the summer of 2009 established a 15-month transition, concluding in general elections tentatively scheduled for late 2013 after repeated delayselection results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TIM 106, LEADER/Fanilo 1, independents 20Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members)note - the judiciary includes a High Court of Justice responsible for adjudicating crimes and misdemeanors by government officials including the presidentjudge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve single-renewable, 3-year terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 6-year termssubordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; provincial and city tribunalsPolitical parties and leaders:Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]Democratic Party for Union in Madagascar or PSDUM [Jean LAHINIRIKO]Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]Green Party or Vert [Sarah Georget RABEHARISOA]I Love Madagascar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]Political pressure groups and leaders:Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMRCommittee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]National Council of Christian Churches or FFKMInternational organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU (suspended), CD, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF (suspended), OPCW, PCA, SADC (suspended), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Velotiana Rakotoanosy RAOBELINAchancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 265-5525 through 5526FAX:  (202) 265-3034consulate(s) general: New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Eric WONGembassy: Lot 207A, Point Liberty, Andranoro, Antehiroka, 105 Antananarivomailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivotelephone:  (23) 480 00/01FAX:  (23) 480 35Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side; by tradition, red stands for sovereignty, green for hope, white for purityNational anthem:name: ""Ry Tanindraza nay malala o"" (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)lyrics/music: Pasteur RAHAJASON/Norbert RAHARISOAnote: adopted 1959Economy ::MadagascarEconomy - overview:After discarding socialist economic policies in the mid-1990s, Madagascar followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization that has been undermined since the start of the political crisis. This strategy placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing 80% of the population. Exports of apparel boomed in recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the US, however, Madagascar's failure to comply with the requirements of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) led to the termination of the country's duty-free access in January 2010 and a sharp fall in textile production. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns. The current political crisis, which began in early 2009, has dealt additional blows to the economy. Tourism dropped more than 50% in 2009 compared with the previous year, and many investors are wary of entering the uncertain investment environment. Growth was anemic during 2010 to 2012 although expansion in mining and agricultural sectors is expected to contribute to more growth in 2013.GDP (purchasing power parity):$21.76 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 128$21.35 billion (2011 est.)$20.97 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$10.12 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:1.9% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1401.8% (2011 est.)0.4% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$1,000 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 218$1,000 (2011 est.)$1,000 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:-1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 143-2.3% of GDP (2011 est.)-4% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 85.7%government consumption: 11.9%investment in fixed capital: 18.7%investment in inventories: 0%exports of goods and services: 28.5%imports of goods and services: -44.8%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 27.9%industry: 16.2%services: 55.8% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock productsIndustries:meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourismIndustrial production growth rate:2.7% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 90Labor force:9.504 million (2007)country comparison to the world: 51Population below poverty line:50% (2004 est.)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.2%highest 10%: 34.7% (2010 est.)Distribution of family income - Gini index:47.5 (2001)country comparison to the world: 2838.1 (1999)Budget:revenues: $1.758 billionexpenditures: $1.929 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:17.4% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 182Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-1.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 76Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):6.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1709.5% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:5% (31 December 2010 est.)NA% (31 December 2009 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:56.25% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 152.5% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$1.492 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 134$1.445 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$2.926 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 146$2.223 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$1.245 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 152$1.054 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:-$2.322 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 142-$2.526 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$640.7 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 169$588.3 million (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, clothing, chromite, petroleum productsExports - partners:France 23.1%, China 6.5%, US 6.5%, Singapore 5.8%, Canada 5.4%, India 5.3%, Germany 5.3%, Indonesia 5.2%, South Africa 4.4% (2012)Imports:$2.755 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 150$2.697 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, foodImports - partners:China 17.2%, France 12.1%, South Africa 5.3%, Bahrain 5.1%, India 5%, Mauritius 4.7%, Kuwait 4.4% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.191 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 130$1.279 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$3.127 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 136$2.769 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$NAStock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$NAExchange rates:Malagasy ariary (MGA) per US dollar -2,195 (2012 est.)2,025.1 (2011 est.)2,090 (2010 est.)1,956.2 (2009)1,654.78 (2008)Energy ::MadagascarElectricity - production:1.35 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 142Electricity - consumption:1.256 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 147Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 208Electricity - installed generating capacity:406,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 142Electricity - from fossil fuels:69.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 108Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 129Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:30.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 77Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 151Crude oil - production:0 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 158Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 144Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 88Crude oil - proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 157Refined petroleum products - production:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 199Refined petroleum products - consumption:17,480 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 137Refined petroleum products - exports:0 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 194Refined petroleum products - imports:14,250 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 121Natural gas - production:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 157Natural gas - consumption:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 165Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 136Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 91Natural gas - proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)country comparison to the world: 161Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:3.384 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 134Communications ::MadagascarTelephones - main lines in use:138,100 (2011)country comparison to the world: 139Telephones - mobile cellular:8.665 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 84Telephone system:general assessment: system is above average for the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized in the late 1990s, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developeddomestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 40 per 100 personsinternational: country code - 261; landing point for the EASSy, SEACOM, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2010)Broadcast media:state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2007)Internet country code:.mgInternet hosts:38,392 (2012)country comparison to the world: 102Internet users:319,900 (2009)country comparison to the world: 127Transportation ::MadagascarAirports:83 (2013)country comparison to the world: 66Airports - with paved runways:total: 26over 3,047 m: 12,438 to 3,047 m: 21,524 to 2,437 m: 6914 to 1,523 m: 16under 914 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 571,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 38under 914 m:18 (2013)Railways:total: 854 kmcountry comparison to the world: 97narrow gauge: 854 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)Roadways:total: 65,663 kmcountry comparison to the world: 70paved: 7,617 kmunpaved: 58,046 km (2003)Waterways:600 km (432 km navigable) (2011)country comparison to the world: 80Merchant marine:total: 1country comparison to the world: 156by type: cargo 1registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear)Military ::MadagascarMilitary branches:People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force (navy and air); National GendarmerieMilitary service age and obligation:18-25 years of age for male-only voluntary military service; no conscription; service obligation is 18 months for military or equivalent civil service; 20-30 years of age for National Gendarmerie recruits and 35 years of age for those with military experience (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 4,900,729females age 16-49: 4,909,061 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 3,390,071females age 16-49: 3,682,180 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 248,184female: 246,769 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:5.1% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 15Transnational Issues ::MadagascarDisputes - international:claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands)Trafficking in persons:current situation: Madagascar is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; poor Malagasy women hired as domestic workers in Lebanon and Kuwait are vulnerable to abuse by recruitment agencies and employers; an increasing number of Malagasy men were victimized by labor trafficking abroad in 2012; Malagasy children are subjected to domestic servitude, prostitution, forced begging, and forced labor within the country, often with the complicity of family members; coastal cities have child sex tourism trades, with Malagasy men being the main clientstier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Madagascar does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement authorities have made a significant increase in efforts in 2012, resulting in 30 trafficking-related prosecutions and two convictions; public officials complicity in human trafficking, however, remains a significant problem; the government has failed to identify and refer victims to protective services and has not supported NGO-run care facilities; the government also has not engaged any Middle Eastern governments regarding the protection of and legal remedies for Malagasy workers exploited abroad (2013)Illicit drugs:illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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